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中國偉大的傳統建筑結構——榫卯

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中國偉大的傳統建筑結構——榫卯

分類:
學習中心
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來源:
2019/03/11 09:01
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榫卯(sǔn mǎo),是古代中國建筑、家具及其它器械的主要建筑結構方式,是在兩個構件上采用凹凸部位相結合的一種連接方式。凸出部分叫榫(或叫榫頭);凹進部分叫卯(或叫榫眼、榫槽)。

 

 

榫卯結構的物件在我們現代生活中也隨處可見,小到板凳桌椅,中到衣櫥窗柜,大到房屋梁頂。

其特點是在物件上不使用釘子,利用卯榫加固物件,體現出中國古老的文化和智慧。

 

若榫卯使用得當,兩塊木結構之間就能嚴密扣合,達到“天衣無縫”的程度。它是古代,木匠必須具備的基本技能,工匠手藝的高低,通過榫卯的結構就能清楚的反映出來。

 

 

幾十種不同的“榫卯”,按構合作用來歸類,大致可分為三大類型:

一類主要是作面與面的接合,也可以是兩條邊的拼合,還可以是面與邊的交接構合。如“槽口榫”、“企口榫”、“燕尾榫”、“穿帶榫”、“扎榫”等。

 

另一類是作為“點”的結構方法。主要用于作橫豎材丁字結合,成角結合,交叉結合,以及直材和弧形材的伸延接合。如“格肩榫”、“雙榫”、“雙夾榫”、“勾掛榫”、“鍥釘榫”、“半榫”、“通榫”等等。

 

還有一類是將三個構件組合一起并相互連結的構造方法,這種方法除運用以上的一些榫卯聯合結構外,都是一些更為復雜和特殊的做法。如常見的有“托角榫”、“長短榫”、“抱肩榫”、“粽角榫”等。

 

 

榫卯結構也是中國古代匠人們聰明智慧的完美體現,現今很多極簡家具的設計也大量用到榫卯結構,這種結構的物品簡單美觀,耐用性高。上海世博會的中國館,也運用到的榫卯結構的設計靈感,整個場館就是中國偉大的榫卯建筑結構文化的縮影。

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